The normal waiting period to obtain eligibility for naturalization is five years, but there are certain exceptions. Here are the special cases and exceptions to the standard eligibility requirements to apply for naturalization, according to FindLaw:
Spouses of U.S. Citizens
Generally, certain lawful permanent residents married to a U.S. citizen may file for naturalization after residing continuously in the United States for three years if immediately preceding the filing of the application:
- the applicant has been married to and living in a valid marital union with the same U.S. citizen spouse for all three years;
- the U.S. spouse has been a citizen for all three years and meets all physical presence and residence requirements; and
- the applicant meets all other naturalization requirements.
There are also exceptions for lawful permanent residents married to U.S. citizens stationed or employed abroad. Some lawful permanent residents may not have to comply with the residence or physical presence requirements when the U.S. citizen spouse is employed by one of the following:
- the U.S. Government (including the U.S. Armed Forces);
- American research institutes recognized by the Attorney General;
- recognized U.S. religious organizations;
- U.S. research institutions;
- an American firm engaged in the development of foreign trade and commerce of the United States; or
- certain public international organizations involving the United States.
Children of U.S. Citizens
Generally, U.S. citizen parents of children born abroad may file a N-600 Application for Certificate of Citizenship. This form should be completed in accordance with the instructions provided and should be accompanied by 2 photographs of the child, copies of any documents that verify eligibility, and the required filing fee to be considered complete and ready to process.
Adopted children of citizen parents acquire citizenship. For adopted children, adoptive parents file an N-643 instead of an N-600. However, adopted children over 18 must file an N-400.
Veterans of U.S. Armed Forces
Certain applicants who have served in the U.S. Armed Forces are eligible to file for naturalization based on current or prior U.S. military service. Such applicants should file the N-400 Military Naturalization Packet.
Lawful Permanent Residents with Three Years U.S. Military Service
An applicant who has served for three years in the U.S. military and who is a lawful permanent resident is excused from any specific period of required residence, period of residence in any specific place, or physical presence within the United States if an application for naturalization is filed while the applicant is still serving or within six months of an honorable discharge.